In Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 recognizing a gap in programming for youth with sexual behavior problems and the lack of a systematic and holistic approach to managing these cases, OJJDP and the Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking collaborated to fund this program. Since FY 2018, OJJDP has continued to fund the program.

OJJDP provides for the  training and technical assistance to improve the accuracy, accessibility, and strategic use of information about the nature, incidence, prevalence, prevention, treatment, and management of youth with problematic sexual behaviors.  Since FY 2010, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center’s National Center on the Sexual Behavior of Youth (NCSBY) has been continuously selected by OJJDP to serve as the training and technical assistance provider for the Supporting Effective Interventions for Youth with Problematic or Illegal Sexual Behavior Project Sites.

We at NCSBY partner with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Program (OJJDP) to ensure the protection and welfare of American Youth.

We align ourselves with the OJJDP in efforts to continue three guiding priorities

  • Treat Children as Children
  • Serve Children at Home, With Their Families, In Their Communities
  • Open Opportunities for System-Involved Youth


OJJDP envisions a nation where our children are free from crime and violence. If they come into contact with the justice system, the contact should be rare, fair, and beneficial to them.

Since 2010, OJJDP has funded more than 30 project sites to implement comprehensive, coordinated, community-based evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with problematic sexual behavior (PSB), child victims, and caregivers.

OJJDP has selected NCSBY to provide comprehensive training and technical assistance (T/TA), which includes intensive clinical training in evidence-based practice for youth with PSB. We provide resources to identify and overcome barriers, adapt efforts to fit communities’ resources and needs, facilitate community collaboration, dispel myths, and enhance family engagement.

Building on that success, we provide training and technical assistance to:

  • Establish community-based management and evidence-based practice for youth with PSB, victims, and families; and
  • Improve the community’s coordination of services through multidisciplinary teams.

We work with project site awardees to surmount multiple agency, system, and policy-level barriers to establish effective procedures, policies, and programs that are fair and just. These changes support identification, referral, access, engagement, and sustainability of evidence-based practices.

Through OJJDP funding, toolkits, tip sheets, and other resources are continuously being developed and disseminated through OJJDP portals, NCSBY.org and through partners. Caregiver and Youth Partnership Boards.

NCSBY Resources Include:

Resources developed by OJJDP include

For more resources, visit OJJDP Resources

More information about the efforts of the OJJDP can be found here: https://www.ojp.gov

U.S Military Coordinated Community Response To Problematic Sexual Behavior Of Children and Youth (PSB-CY).

Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 6400.10 establishes policy, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures for the DoD coordinated community response (CCR) for preventing and responding to problematic sexual behavior in children and youth (PSB-CY), as defined in DoDI 6400.01. This instruction also specifically provides policies for establishing the PSB-CY Multidisciplinary Teams and the roles of Family Advocate Programs (FAP).

PSB-CY can be a complicated issue to address with families of a child exhibiting PSB, as well as those directly impacted by these behaviors. To help with education, training, and support, the DoD has collaborated with the National Center on the Sexual Behavior of Youth (NCSBY) through a cooperative agreement with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention to develop resources and provide training for military personnel and families. In Fiscal Year 2016, OJJDP expanded its training and technical assistance to help all four branches of the military to address problematic sexual behaviors among youth on military bases in coordination with the Department of Defense (DoD). DoD entered into an Interagency Agreement with OJJDP by providing $1,500,000 that was used to supplement the FY 2016 OJJDP cooperative agreement with OUHSC’s NCSBY. These DoD funds were to develop resources and training materials as well as provide training on PSB-CY to installations and enhanced clinical training of military professionals who respond to problematic sexual behavior in children and youth (PSB-CY) involving military children and youth residing both stateside and overseas. DoD, with NCSBY and OJJDP, joined forces with additional partners to create a catalog of resources available to address Problematic Sexual Behavior of Children and Youth.

Provided below are links to the DoDI and these resources.

Native American

When we have a direct connection to our traditions and culture it helps us build a solid foundation of where we come from. - Kaycee Martinez

The Sacred Circle refers to the balance of mind, body, spirit and emotional/relational aspects of life. The history of colonization, boarding schools, trauma, violence and abuse has created an imbalance in the Sacred Circle.

In partnership with the Indian Country Child Trauma Center (ICCTC), the Restoring the Sacred Circle Toolkit was developed for Tribal communities to support healthy development of youth and responses to PSB of youth that promote healing. Drawing from previous experience with tribal communities, we describe barriers and strategies to overcome these barriers, utilizing existing resources and tribal knowledge. Youth’s sexual behavior can range from normal, typical, concerning, problematic, harmful and illegal. Understanding the continuum of sexual behavior is essential to effective community prevention and treatment.

“Healing from sexual trauma…it is important for the entire community. Generations of sexual trauma has impacted the well-being of all.“ — Charlene LaPointe, Former Project Coordinator White Buffalo Calf Women's Society.

Download this toolkit here:

Juvenile Justice & Courts:

Much of Native culture is based on the Circle of Life. Culture teaches us that we are all relatives to all things in creation. Some of the threads in the Circle have become broken. Law enforcement can help mend the Circle by understanding the needs of youth and families.

The juvenile justice system works with youth who have failed to follow required laws and policies and require rehabilitative approaches. Child protective systems may also be involved. The systems overlap to provide services for youth with problematic sexual behaviors (PSB) and their victims. The process includes reporting, investigating, arresting, and making decisions on whether to prosecute, defer prosecution, divert, or use other triage pathways.

Some cases may involve a trial, adjudication, hearing, and sentence, with investigations that may include interviews/testimony, medical exams, and victim services. If a youth is arrested for illegal sexual behavior, a decision on whether to proceed with adjudication is made. Other triage pathways may be utilized, depending on factors such as the crime, context, responsibility, risk, and needs, as well as protective factors, including deferred prosecution and referral for treatment.

To learn more, view our fact sheet here:>

Law Enforcement:

Federally recognized tribes have the authority to create and enforce their own laws. However, jurisdiction varies depending on the type of crime, characteristics of individuals involved, and the location of the crime. Law enforcement officers often have the responsibility of determining whether a criminal violation of the law has occurred. They can also participate in mentoring programs and connect community members to available resources. In cases where interpersonal illegal sexual behavior is suspected, law enforcement may also conduct investigations.

To learn more, view our fact sheet here:

Mental Health Providers:

Much of Native culture is based on the Circle of Life. Culture teaches us that we are all relatives to all things in creation. Healthy development of our children integrates emotional, behavioral, physical and spiritual growth.

A crucial aspect of addressing problematic sexual behavior (PSB) in youth is providing them with education about healthy relationships and a trusted individual to talk to about relationships, friendships, and sex. This helps reduce the likelihood of them turning to peers or the internet for resources. Healing from trauma and building on resilience is needed.

Community- based treatment is generally effective for youth with PSB and allows them to stay in their home and community, with treatment lasting between three and six months based on changes in their knowledge, skills, and behavior. For the most severe cases with significant psychological concerns , more intensive short-term treatments may be needed. Advocating for public policies that support treatment for youth with PSB is important, along with using people-first language and treating them as children first. Consider collaborative care to address specific needs, including family resources and support, youth programming support, connection with traditional activities, suicide prevention, and substance abuse.

To learn more, view our fact sheet here:

Multidisciplinary Teams:

A group of professionals known as MDTs collaborates to respond to reports of child abuse, neglect, and problematic sexual behavior (PSB) in youth. Some MDTs are associated with children's advocacy centers and often include members such as tribal program staff, law enforcement, child protective services, clinicians, school staff, prosecutors, and representatives from other agencies. Some tribes have MDTs or child protection teams in place to respond to youth with PSB, while others do not.

Successful tribal MDTs have key elements, such as community ownership and involvement, resources to support team functions, integration of tribal culture and tradition in team process and decision making, development of clear protocols, participation and commitment of MDT members, adequate training and support, confidentiality, and individual member and team accountability.

To learn more, view our fact sheet here:

Parents And Caregivers

Parents and caregivers can help mend the Circle by understanding sexual development, healthy relationships, healthy interpersonal behavior and problematic sexual behavior (PSB).

If you are concerned that your child may be showing problematic sexual behavior (PSB) or has been impacted by another child’s PSB, it is important to connect with support people who are knowledgeable about PSB, trauma, and healing. They can help you determine the next steps for your child and identify the best treatment options available. The risk factors for youth with PSB are universal and not based solely on any demographic, psychological, or social factors. To build resilience and protective factors in youth, tribal protocol, practices, and ceremonies play an important role.

To learn more, view our fact sheet here:

Schools & Educators

To support the prevention of problematic sexual behavior (PSB) in schools, classes with children as young as pre-K and through high school can offer programming to teach and reinforce privacy, boundaries, consent, rules about sexual behavior, and responses to PSB in developmentally appropriate ways. See page 65 of the Restoring the Sacred Circle for an example.

Teachers, counselors, and other staff play a crucial role in ensuring the safety, health, and wellbeing of students. They provide support for healthy decisions and prevention of problematic sexual behaviors (PSB). When students do cross the line and have PSB, school personnel help to identify those students with PSB and impacted children and respond to link them with therapy services.

To learn more, view our fact sheet here:

Two-Spirit Youth :

Native American LGBTQ+ communities have reclaimed the contemporary umbrella term that refers to the historical and current American Indian and Alaska Native people whose individual spirits were a blend of female and male. They have done so to honor their heritage and provide an alternative to the Western labels of gay, lesbian, or transgender.

PSB rates are not higher among two-spirit youth. However, LGBTQ+ youth are more likely to be charged and adjudicated for sexual offenses for developmentally appropriate and legal sexual behaviors. This is because professionals perceive LGBTQ+ behaviors more harshly and aberrant, not because the actual sexual behavior is problematic or illegal.

Due to stressors they may experience, LGBTQ+ youth are at a higher risk for behavioral health problems. Mental and behavioral health issues such as depression, anxiety, self-harm, and substance use are some of the most mentioned adverse outcomes experienced by LGBTQ+ youth. Other adverse outcomes include family rejection, bullying, homelessness, prostitution (typically survival-driven work due to homelessness), and general discrimination.

To learn more, view our fact sheet here: